Jumat, 04 Januari 2013
Labisia pumila (Blume) Ferm.Vill.
Labisia pumila (Blume) Ferm.Vill.
Synonyms Ardisia pumila Blume (1823), Labisia pohoina Lindle (1845)
Vernacular names Indonesia : kelimparan tuli (Belitung) udu mudung bio (Kenyah, East Kalimantan) Malaysia : Kacip fatima, mata peladok rimba, bunga belangkas hutan (Peninsular)
Origin and geographic distribution L pumila occurs in Indo-China, peninsular Thailand and throughout the Malesian region.
Use in Peninsular Malaysia a root decoction is taken in the months before giving birth to induce and ease delivery. A decoction of leaves and roots, often mixed with other plants, is drunk as a protective post-partum tonic. L. pumila is further used to treat flatulence and dysentery, and decoction of leaves and stems is drunk to treat dysmenorrheal and a root decoction to treat gonorrhea .Capsules based on L. pumila roots are comercially available in Malaysia. In Indonesia a root decoction is taken to treat syphilis , and decoction of leaves and stems to treat menorrhagia.
Properties In a general screening experiment a crude ethanol extract of L. pumila showed biocidal activity against brine shirmp (Artemia salina) nauplii. In an in–vitro bioassay based on the oestrogen–specific enhancement of alkaline phosephatase (AlkP) in human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells, an ethanolic root extract revealed weak oestrogenicity. In a modified disc-diffusion assay, a methanol leaf extract showed moderate antibacterial activity against gram-positive. Pseudomonas spp. And gram-negative Staphyloccus spp. And weak antifungal activity against candida lipolytica and the dernatophytic fungus Trichoplyton rubrum.
Botany An erect or ascending undershrup up to 30(-50) cm tall: stem unbranched. Leaves alternate, simple, oblong-lanceolate, (8-)15-25 cm x (2.5-)5-7 cm, decurrent at base, shallowly crenulate or subentire, variably lepidote below; long-petiolate to subsessile; stipules absent. Inflorescence an axillary raceme 2-8 cm long, ferrugineously puberulous. Flowers bisexual, regular, 5-merous; sepals united at base, c. 0.5 mm long, finely pubescent outside; petals united at base, c. 2 mm long, violet to dirty white, lobes valvate , ovate ; stamens opposite the petals, anthers sessile; ovary superior, 1-celled, style-filiform. Fruit a globose,1-seeded berry, red at maturity.
In Java L. Pumila can be found flowering and fruiting throughout the year. Labisia consists of some 6-9 species, most of them confined to western Malaysia. L. Pumila is the only widespread species. It is variable and sometimes several varieties are recognized.
Ecology. L Pumila is a locally common under storey plant of primary forest an old secondary forest. In peninsular Malaysia and Borneo is it found from sea-level up to 750 m altitude, but is West Java it occurs at 900-1200 m altitude.
Management L. pumila can be propagated by seed and is harvested after 7-8 months. Small scale planting experiments have been done in Malaysia.
Genetic resources Since L.pumila is widespread, occurring in both primary and secondary forest, the risk of genetic erosion appears to be limited. However, overcollecting may locally seriously deplete wild populations, e,g. in Peninsular Malaysia.
Prospects Recent research on pharmacological properties of L. pumila shows weak oestrogenic activity, which may be related to its traditional use as a pre- and post-partum medicine. More research is desirable. The apparently easy propagation and rapid production add to the prospects as a medicinal plant of wider use.
Literature 121,411,534,637,638,894, 62,264,334. Sriana Azis, Prosea, Plant Resources ofSout-East Asia 12 (3)Medicinal and poisonous plants 3, Backhuys Publisher, Leiden 2003, page 266