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- Medicinal herb Index in Indonesia, Pt Eisai Indonesia, Jakarta, 1995, page 173
Minggu, 03 Maret 2013
Rambutan (Nephellium nappaceum Linn).
Synonyms : Nephelium chryseum Blume, Nephelium glabrum Cambess., Nephelium obovatum (Ridely), Nephelium sufferugineum Radlk
Vernacular names Indonesia): rambat,, rambutan jailan, rambutang, puru biawak, hahujam, kakapas, corogot, buluwan, balatung, balatu, siban; (Malay): buah Abong, rambutan, rangalau; (Philippines): rambutan, Usan; (Thailand): Ngoh, Ngoh paa, phruan Ngoh; (Vietnam): ch [oo] m ch [oo] m, chom chom, saaw maaw, vai thi [ee] [uf], vai Thieu; (Khmer): saaw maaw, ser mon; Mandarin): hooun mo Daon Shau Tsz, (English): ramboostan, rambutan, (France): lengkeng chevelu, (Germany): Rambutan.
Trade name: Rambutan.
Origin and geographic distribution, Rambutan is native to Indonesia and Malaysia. Rambutan trees grow naturally in Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines and Southeast Asia spread to India Africa. and Australia
Botany, it is a tree height approximately 15 - 20 meters, dense evergreen, with a round, solid low and spreading crown Leaves: single, oval, tapered tip and base, flat edge, length 8-10 m, width 3 – 5 cm, pinnate shiny green. Flowers greenish-white, fragrant, very small, without petals, and borne on axillary panicles. Fruits are rectangular, 3 to 5 cm long, red to yellow,
Ecology. In Indonesia and Malaysia are tropical climates. Rambutan is adapted to warm tropical climates, around 22–30°, and is sensitive to temperatures below 10 °C. It is grown commercially within 12–15° of the equator. The tree grows well on heights up to 500 metres above sea-level. In Indonesia, rambutan flowers from November to February and again between and May to August, usually in response to rain following a dry period.
Cultivars There are well over 200 cultivars developed from selected clones available throughout tropical Asia. They are easier harvesting. In Indonesia there are 22 rambutan cultivars identified with good quality. Five of them are leading cultivars; Rambutan Rapiah, Rambutan Aceh, Lebak Bulus, Rambutan Cimacan, Rambutan Binjai, and Rambutan Sinyonya
Constituents Seed yield 40 – 48 % fat (soluble fatty acid), it is consist of palmitic, 2.0%; stearic, 13.8%; arachidic, 34.7%; oleic, 45.3%; and ericosenoic, 4.2%. Meat or pulp from the fruit of f 7.8% saccharose, dextrose 2.25%, 1.25% levulose, 35% fat, 2% ash, 4% vitamin C.
Use the fruit is recommended as an anti dysentery and warming carminative. In Indonesia : the fruit, root, or leaf decoction is taken fever; the leaves are for dye; the barks are for dysentery, astringent and after childbirth; the fruits are for food; the seeds for dysentery and diabetes. In Indo China: it is used as an astringent and anti febrile, a decoction is given to treat diarrhea and fever. Malay Peninsula: the root with several other plant parts in a decoction is drunk a remedy for fever, the leaves are place in bath, decoction of bark treat diseases on the tongue. In China, the fruit is recommended for severe dysentery, and as a carminative warm/cold dyspepsia.
Prospects Recent research on pharmacological properties of rambutan: The extract of Rind, seed, leave and bark are producing high amount of phenolic compound. The efficacy of the extract are as antioxidant/antibacteri, antivirus/antiherpes, cancer chemopreventive, and anti obesitas (seed).
Preparation/jamu: The leaves, rind and seed of rambutan are drying and grinding. The doses this herbal is 5 – 15 grams 3 times daily for treatment and make as a cup of coffee. Once daily for preventive.
3. Perry L.M., 1981, Medicinal Plant of East and Southeast Asia, The Mitt Press Cambridge, Missachussets, page 374.
4. Mulyatno K.J, Rambutan, www. malukunews.com
5. Zao tsu, Philippines Alternative Medicines, 2012